In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) Treatment | Dr. Pallavi Daga

In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm outside the body, in vitro ("in glass"). The process involves monitoring and stimulating a woman's ovulatory process, removing an ovum or ova (egg or eggs) from the woman's ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a liquid in a laboratory. The fertilised egg (zygote) undergoes embryo culture for 2–6 days, and is then transferred to the same or another woman's uterus, with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy.



IVF is a type of assisted reproductive technology used for infertility treatment and gestational surrogacy, in which a fertilised egg is implanted into a surrogate's uterus, and the resulting child is genetically unrelated to the surrogate. Some countries banned or otherwise regulate the availability of IVF treatment, giving rise to fertility tourism. Restrictions on availability of IVF include costs and age to carry a healthy pregnancy to term. IVF is mostly attempted if less invasive or expensive options have failed or are unlikely to work.

The first successful birth of a child after IVF treatment, Louise Brown, occurred in 1978. Louise Brown was born as a result of natural cycle IVF where no stimulation was made. The procedure took place at Dr Kershaw's Cottage Hospital (now Dr Kershaw's Hospice) in Royton, Oldham. Robert G. Edwards was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2010, the physiologist who co-developed the treatment together with Patrick Steptoe; Steptoe was not eligible for consideration as the Nobel Prize is not awarded posthumously.With egg donation and IVF, women who are past their reproductive years or have reached menopause can still become pregnant. Adriana Iliescu held the record as the oldest woman to give birth using IVF and donated egg, when she gave birth in 2004 at the age of 66, a record passed in 2006. After the IVF treatment many couples are able to get pregnant without any fertility treatments. In 2012 it was estimated that five million children had been born worldwide using IVF and other assisted reproduction techniques.

34-36 weeks of pregnancy – ultrasound may be used to determine the health of the baby, his position. Ultrasound diagnosis of nuchal cord and helps to determine the tactics of the delivery process.


Terminloogy : 

From Latin meaning "in glass", the term "in vitro" is used because early biological experiments involving cultivation of tissues outside the living organism from which they came, were carried out in glass containers such as beakers, test tubes, or petri dishes.

Today, the scientific term "in vitro" is used to refer to any biological procedure that is performed outside the organism in which it would normally have occurred, to distinguish it from an in vivo procedure, where the tissue remains inside the living organism within which it is normally found. A colloquial term for babies conceived as the result of IVF, "test tube babies", refers to the tube-shaped containers of glass or plastic resin, called test tubes, that are commonly used in chemistry labs and biology labs. However, IVF is usually performed in the shallower containers called Petri dishes. One IVF method, autologous endometrial coculture, is actually performed on organic material, but is still considered IVF.

Medical uses:

Further information: Infertility
IVF may be used to overcome female infertility where it is due to problems with the fallopian tubes, making in vivo fertilisation difficult. It can also assist in male infertility, in those cases where there is a defect in sperm quality; in such situations intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be used, where a sperm cell is injected directly into the egg cell. This is used when sperm has difficulty penetrating the egg, and in these cases the partner's or a donor's sperm may be used. ICSI is also used when sperm numbers are very low. When indicated, the use of ICSI has been found to increase the success rates of IVF.

According to UK's NICE guidelines, IVF treatment is appropriate in cases of unexplained infertility for women that have not conceived after 2 years of regular unprotected sexual intercourse.[4] This rule does not apply to all countries.

IVF is also considered suitable in cases where any of its expansions is of interest, that is, a procedure that is usually not necessary for the IVF procedure itself, but would be virtually impossible or technically difficult to perform without concomitantly performing methods of IVF. Such expansions include preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to rule out presence of genetic disorders, as well as egg donation or surrogacy where the woman providing the egg isn't the same who will carry the pregnancy to term. Further details in the Expansions-section below.

Method :

Theoretically, IVF could be performed by collecting the contents from a woman's fallopian tubes or uterus after natural ovulation, mixing it with sperm, and reinserting the fertilised ova into the uterus. However, without additional techniques, the chances of pregnancy would be extremely small. The additional techniques that are routinely used in IVF include ovarian hyperstimulation to generate multiple eggs or ultrasound-guided transvaginal oocyte retrieval directly from the ovaries; after which the ova and sperm are prepared, as well as culture and selection of resultant embryos before embryo transfer into a uterus.

Natural IVF :

Main article: Natural cycle in vitro fertilisation

There are several methods termed natural cycle IVF:

IVF using no drugs for ovarian hyperstimulation, while drugs for ovulation suppression may still be used.
IVF using ovarian hyperstimulation, including gonadotropins, but with a GnRH antagonist protocol so that the cycle initiates from natural mechanisms.
Frozen embryo transfer; IVF using ovarian hyperstimulation, followed by embryo cryopreservation, followed by embryo transfer in a later, natural, cycle.
IVF using no drugs for ovarian hyperstimulation was the method for the conception of Louise Brown. This method can be successfully used when women want to avoid taking ovarian stimulating drugs with its associated side-effects. HFEA has estimated the live birth rate to be approximately 1.3% per IVF cycle using no hyperstimulation drugs for women aged between 40–42.

Mild IVF is a method where a small dose of ovarian stimulating drugs are used for a short duration during a woman’s natural cycle aimed at producing 2–7 eggs and creating healthy embryos. This method appears to be an advance in the field to reduce complications and side-effects for women and it is aimed at quality, and not quantity of eggs and embryos. One study comparing a mild treatment (mild ovarian stimulation with GnRH antagonist co-treatment combined with single embryo transfer) to a standard treatment (stimulation with a GnRH agonist long-protocol and transfer of two embryos) came to the result that the proportions of cumulative pregnancies that resulted in term live birth after 1 year were 43.4% with mild treatment and 44.7% with standard treatment.Mild IVF can be cheaper than conventional IVF and with a significantly reduced risk of multiple gestation and OHSS.



Doctor’s Detail 

      A balanced approach is the key when dealing with women’s problems – when you visit us, you  are assured of always seeing a female gynecologist Dr.Pallavi Daga, whose years of experience  in dealing with genie concerns makes her one of the Best contraception adviser in Kolkata and Best  Polycystic Ovary Surgeon in Kolkata, as well as Best Abortion Specialist in Kolkata and also famous breast cancer specialist in kolkata.




          Dr. Pallavi Daga 

          MBBS, MS, MRCOG(LONDON)

          Consultant GynaecologistLaparoscopic Surgeon
          Mobile:  90517 71712
          Visiting Consultant: Bhagirathi Neotia
          Website :  http://drpallavidaga.com

    Specialities :

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

9 Months Pregnant: Signs, Symptoms & the Coming Labor | Dr. Pallavi Daga

High BP (Blood Pressure) through Pregnancy | Dr. Pallavi Daga | drpallavidaga.com

Dr.Pallavi Daga | Best lady Gynecologist In Kolkata | Famous Gynecologist In Kolkata | drpallavidaga.com